Water produced and used in a variety of industries and processes contains dissolved minerals that if not treated will form hard scales and deposits. They can plug wells, formations, drilling and flow control equipment in the oil and natural gas market, as well as foul and plug heat transfer equipment, pumps and valves in the chemical and cleaning industries leading to severe losses in production and large costs in replacing equipment.
Of special interest is the use of significant amounts of fresh water in various parts of the country to control the effects of brine reservoirs and brine waters in the production of both oil and natural gas. This is done to protect wells, pumps and shale formations from becoming scaled-up and costing operators millions of dollars annually as well as consuming a valuable resource.
One of the biggest challenges in oil production is to maximize the efficiency of using fresh water to dilute the brine produced water that is associated with oil in the production process. Once the brine system is disturbed, massive precipitation of sodium chloride (halite) occurs plugging pipes, equipment and the formation itself resulting in lost production.
Until now, there has been no satisfactory way of treating or preventing this scaling problem other than to pump thousands of gallons of water downhole in order to dilute the brine produced water resulting in huge capital and resource costs.
One of the biggest challenges in hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is minimizing the environmental impact of the chemicals used in the process. A consequence of using fresh water as a fracking fluid is that minerals in the shale layers dissolve creating a high-solids brine. Because of the localized high temperatures and pressures from the fracking process, the dissolved minerals eventually form hard deposits and scales leading to plugged wells, pipes, pumps and the shale formation itself. This results in lost production, downtime and costly re-fracking.
Until now, only traditional non-biodegradable scale inhibitors have been used in the fracking process prompting popular demands to minimize or impede the fracking process altogether. GGP’s new catalyzed polymer programs prevent and control the scaling process and are the first eco-friendly products introduced that have a decided advantage in reducing fracking’s environmental footprint.
Oil spills and leaks occur on bodies of water of all types, including those containing fresh, brackish, or salt (sea) water. Recovery of oil may also be required on beaches and coastal lands. In yet other situations, it may be required to recover oil from a source, such as the side of a vessel. The unwanted material may be any hydrocarbon material, such as crude oil, residual fuel oils, and distilled products such as gasoline, kerosene-type jet fuel, diesel fuel and heating oil.
Various techniques and materials have been used as absorbents in helping to minimize, contain or control contamination resulting from hydrocarbon fuel, oil, and chemical spills. Current available products for spill control include clay, kaolin, silica, silica sand, polypropylene, sodium polyacrylate/polyacrylamides, vermiculite, gypsum, limestone, metal oxides, asphalt, fiberglass, diatomaceous earth, and other materials. Such materials, while showing some function, suffer from many drawbacks: many such products contain silica, which poses a hazard to humans, or are not biodegradable, which is a factor that can limit the options for disposal of the used sorbent material.
Bio-D 1200 and Bio-D 1300 provide patented and environmentally friendly and biodegradable solutions that not only mitigate the spill but offer a sound and safe recovery process for hydrocarbon capture.
The global water industry is estimated at $483 billion and growing several percentage points a year, according to Global Water Intelligence. One-fifth of the world’s population lacks access to clean water, and by 2025, 1.8 billion people will be living in areas where water is scarce.
The versatility of GGP’s proprietary polymer technology in both mineral scale control and dispersion allows for its use in various water treatment, detergent and cleaner applications. Water is highly regarded by industry as an indispensable processing aid as well as being used as an ingredient to make millions of products.
When dissolved minerals in water are not properly treated, any kind of stress put on water such as an increase in temperature, pressure or concentration will cause these minerals to catastrophically precipitate and form hard deposits and scale on the surfaces of most processing equipment.
Particulates such as dirt and precipitated minerals will agglomerate and settle on surfaces as a scale or, in the case of detergents, re-attach to any surface being cleaned. GGP offers products that are a safe and responsible replacement for non-biodegradable, toxic and hazardous chemicals and polymers currently used in these applications.